The last ice age

20 000 years – 2 centimetres

Northern Europe and much of Northern America was covered by ice sheets. (Glacier Hub / NASA)

The Scandinavian glacier covers all of Finland. The southern edge is as far as northern Germany. Southwestern Finland’s bedrock sinks 2 km under the weight of the ice.

Image: The Scandinavian glacier covered all of Finland. Glacier Hub | NASA

The pleistocenic climate is at its coldest. The glaciers are at their most extended dimension and cover all of the Scandinavian countries. The southern edge is as far as northern Germany. Sea levels are about 130 – 150 meters lower than what they are today.

The last glacial maximum. Image: Christopher R. Scotese